Հեռավար֊առցանց ուսուցում.անգլերեն

Rudyard Kipling – Biography

Born: December 30, 1865
Bombay, India
Died: January 18, 1936
Burwash, England

English writer and poet

The English poet and story writer Rudyard Kipling was one of the first masters of the short story in English, and he was the first to use Cockney dialect (the manner in which natives of London, England’s, East End speak) in serious poetry.

Early life

Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay, India. His father was professor of architectural sculpture at the Bombay School of Art. In 1871 Kipling was sent to England for his education. In 1878 Rudyard entered the United Services College at Westward Ho!, a boarding school in Devon. There young “Gigger,” as he was called, endured bullying and harsh discipline, but he also enjoyed the close friendships, practical jokes, and merry pranks he later recorded in Stalky & Co. (1899).

Kipling’s closest friend at Westward Ho!, George Beresford, described him as a short, but “cheery, capering, podgy, little fellow” with a thick pair of spectacles over “a broad smile.” His eyes were brilliant blue, and over them his heavy black eyebrows moved up and down as he talked. Another close friend was the headmaster, (the principal of a private school) “Crom” Price, who encouraged Kipling’s literary ambitions by having him edit the school paper and praising the poems which he wrote for it. When Kipling sent some of these to India, his father had them privately printed as Schoolboy Lyrics (1881), Kipling’s first published work.

Young journalist

In 1882 Kipling rejoined his parents in Lahore, India, where he became a copy editor (one who edits newspaper articles) for the Civil and Military Gazette. In 1887 he moved to the Allahabad Pioneer, a better paper, which gave him greater liberty in his writing. He published satiric (sharply or bitterly witty) verses, Departmental Ditties in 1886, and over seventy short stories in 1888 in seven paperback volumes. In style, these stories showed the influence of the writers Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849), Bret Harte (1836–1902), and Guy de Maupassant (1850–1893). The subjects, however, were Kipling’s own. He wrote about Anglo-Indian society, which he readily criticized with an acid pen, and the life of the common British soldier and the Indian native, which he portrayed accurately and sympathetically.

Fame in England

In 1889 Kipling took a long voyage through China, Japan, and the United States. When he reached London, he found that his stories had preceded him and established him as a brilliant new author. He was readily accepted into the circle of leading writers. While there he wrote a number of stories and some of his best-remembered poems: “A Ballad of East and West,” “Mandalay,” and “The English Flag.” He also introduced English readers to a “new genre [type]” of serious poems in Cockney dialect: “Danny Deever,” “Tommy,” “Fuzzy-Wuzzy,” and “Gunga Din.”

Kipling’s first novel, The Light That Failed (1891), was unsuccessful. But when his stories were collected as Life’s Handicap (1891) and poems as Barrackroom Ballads (1892), Kipling replaced Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892) as the most popular English author.

The American years

In 1892 Kipling married Caroline Balestier. They settled on the Balestier estate near Brattleboro, Vermont, in the United States, and began four of the happiest years of Kipling’s life. During this time he wrote some of his best work— Many Inventions (1893), perhaps his best volume of short stories; The Jungle Book (1894) and The Second Jungle Book (1895), two books of animal fables that attracted readers of all ages by illustrating the larger truths of life; The Seven Seas (1896), a collection of poems in experimental rhythms; and Captains Courageous (1897), a novel-length, sea story. These works not only assured Kipling’s lasting fame as a serious writer but also made him a rich man.

His imperialism

In 1897 the Kiplings settled in Rottingdean, a village on the British coast near Brighton. The outbreak of the Spanish-American War (1898; a short war between Spain and the United States over lands including Cuba and the Philippines) and the Boer War (1899–1902; a war between Great Britain and South Africa) turned Kipling’s attention to colonial affairs. He began to publish a number of solemn poems in standard English in the London Times. The most famous of these, “Recessional” (July 17, 1897), issued a warning to Englishmen to regard their accomplishments in the Diamond Jubilee (fiftieth) year of Queen Victoria’s (1819–1901) reign with humility and awe rather than pride and arrogance. The equally well-known “White Man’s Burden” (February 4, 1899) clearly expressed the attitudes toward the empire that are implied in the stories in The Day’s Work (1898) and A Fleet in Being (1898).

Kipling referred to less highly developed peoples as “lesser breeds” and considered order, discipline, sacrifice, and humility to be the essential qualities of colonial rulers. These views have been denounced as racist (believing that one race is better than others), elitist (believing oneself to be a part of a superior group), and jingoistic (pertaining to a patriot who speaks in favor of an aggressive and warlike foreign policy). But for Kipling, the term “white man” indicated citizens of the more highly developed nations. He felt it was their duty to spread law, literacy, and morality throughout the world.

During the Boer War, Kipling spent several months in South Africa, where he raised funds for soldiers’ relief and worked on an army newspaper, the Friend. In 1901 Kipling published Kim, the last and most charming of his portrayals of Indian life. But anti-imperialist reaction following the end of the Boer War caused a decline in Kipling’s popularity.

When Kipling published The Five Nations, a book of South African verse, in 1903, he was attacked in parodies (satirical imitations), caricatures (exaggerations for comic effect), and serious protests as the opponent of a growing spirit of peace and democratic equality. Kipling retired to “Bateman’s,” a house near Burwash, a secluded village in Essex.

Later works

Kipling now turned from the wide empire as his subject to simply England itself. In 1902 he published Just So Stories for Little Children. He also issued two books of stories of England’s past— Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906) and Rewards and Fairies (1910). Like the Jungle Books they were intended for young readers but were suitable for adults as well. His most significant work at this time was a number of volumes of short stories written in a different style—”Traffics and Discoveries” (1904), “Actions and Reactions” (1904), “A Diversity of Creatures” (1917), “Debits and Credits” (1926), and “Limits and Renewals” (1932).

Kipling’s later stories treat more complex, subtle, and somber (serious) subjects. They reflect Kipling’s darkened worldview following the death of his daughter, Josephine, in 1899, and the death of his son, John, in 1915. Consequently, these stories have never been as popular as his earlier works. But modern critics, in reevaluating Kipling, have found a greater power and depth that make them among his best work.

In 1907 Kipling became the first English writer to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature. He died on January 18, 1936, and is buried in Westminster Abbey in London, England. His autobiography, Something of Myself, was published in 1937.

Rudyard Kipling’s early stories and poems about life in colonial India made him a great favorite with English readers. His support of English imperialism (the policy of extending the rule of a nation over foreign countries) at first contributed to this popularity but caused a reaction against him in the twentieth century. Today he is best known for his Junglշe Books and Kim, a Story of India.

Analysis of “If” by Rudyard Kipling

I really liked the poem because of its meaning. That teaches us a lot of wise things, about which we must know and remember. I’m too happy that we read it on our lecture, so I’m gonna read it one more time.

I want to speak about what it teaches us. So we must believe in ourselves, while we making an alowance to the others doubting us. We must trust ourselves, we must be the ones who we are. We can be lied, but don’t deal in lie, we can be hated, but don’t hate others. We must wait, but don’t be tired by waithing. So you can find such things and meanings in the poem…

But the mains are our Will, which holds on our feelings and mind, and the virtue, about which we must always remember.

This was the only and first poem, which I liked as much, so I was surprised that Rudyard Kipling had written such books and stories.

Modal verbs: can, may, must

Can, could, and be able to

  • We use can to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do something.

e.g. He can speak many foreign languages.

  • The negative is can’t.
  • But can has only two forms can (present) and could (past).
  • Can has no future and present perfect that is why in those cases we use be able to.

e.g. I will be able to meet you tomorrow.

They haven’t been able to sleep recently.

May and Might

  • We use may or might to say that something is a possibility.

It may be true.(present)

It might be true.(past)

It might rain.(future- perhaps it will rain)

  • The negative forms are may not and might not (mightn’t)


I, you, he… etc may (might) not be (true, at home, in the office)

not be (doing, working,having)

not do, know, have , want

Must and have to

  • We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something.

E/g I must go or I have to go

  • The negative forms are mustn’t and don’t have to(doesn’t have to)
  • The difference between must and have to:

You must do something.

You must meet her.

In both cases the speaker says that it is necessary.

You can’t turn right here, you have to turn left.(because of the traffic system)

I have to get up early tomorrow.My train leaves at 7:30


1. Complete the sentences using can, could, be able to

1.John has traveled a lot. He can speak four languages.

2.I haven’t been able to sleep very well lately.

3. She can drive, but she hasn’t got a car.

4. I can’t see you on Friday, but I will be able to meet you on Saturday.

5. You look tired. – Yes, I couldn’t sleep last night.

6.I was feeling sick yesterday. I couldn’t eat anything.

7.They didn’t want to come with us, but we can persuade them.

2. Use may or might

1.I was surprised, that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.- She might not have known about it.

2. He may be in the office.

3. Ask Ann, she may know.

4.I haven’t decided where I am going for holidays. I may go to England.

5.Take the umbrella. It may rain later.

3.Use must, mustn’t , have to , don’t/doesn’t have to

  1. I promised I would be on time. I mustn’t be late.
  2. I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get up early.
  3. What do I have to do to get a driving license?
  4. I haven’t phoned Ann for ages, I must phone her tonight.
  5. I don’t want anyone to know. You mustn’t tell anyone.
  6. He doesn’t have to wear a suit to work, but he usually does.
  7. We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.

Հեռավար-առցանց ուսուցում․ Անգլերեն. ապրիլի 20-30


George Byron – about Armenia and Armenians

Read, translate, choose new words for vocabulary and write their definitions

Biography of Lord Byron

Learn to tell (you can choose 1 or two subtitles)

Early Life
Lord Byron was born in 1788 in London under the full name George Gordon Noel, sixth Baron Byron. He was raised in Aberdeen, Scotland, by his mother after his father fled the family and died in 1791 in France. Byron inherited his title at the age of 10, though he later adopted his mother-in-law’s family name, Noel, in order to inherit half of her estate.
Portrait of Lord Byron, lithograph by Josef Eduard Teltscher c. 1825
Imagno/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Byron’s mother was prone to mood swings and heavy drinking. Due to mistreatment by his mother coupled with a deformed foot and an uneven temper, Byron lacked discipline and structure in his formative years.
He was educated at Harrow School in London, followed by Trinity College at Cambridge, though he spent most of his time at the latter engaging in sexual relationships and sporting activities. It was during this time that he began writing and publishing works.
After completing his education at Cambridge, Lord Byron embarked on a two-year journey across Spain, Portugal, Malta, Albania, and Greece, from which he drew inspiration for Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage. After Byron finalized the separation from his wife, he left England permanently for Switzerland, where he spent time with the Shelleys.

He went on to travel across Italy engaging in promiscuous affairs, writing and publishing work along the way. He spent six years in Italy, where he wrote and released Don Juan.

Lord Byron Poems

choose one, learn it and make a video while reading

So, we'll go no more a roving
    So late into the night,
Though the heart be still as loving,
    And the moon be still as bright.

For the sword outwears its sheath,
    And the soul wears out the breast,
And the heart must pause to breathe,
    And love itself have rest.

Though the night was made for loving,
    And the day returns too soon,
Yet we'll go no more a roving
    By the light of the moon

Your Ancestors


Grammar: Prepositions to, into, by

  • TO

We say go/come/travel to a place or event.

e.g. go to America return to Italy drive to the airport

come to my house take him to hospital to be sent to prison

we also say: on my way to…/ a journey to …/a trip to…/welcome to…


We say “I’ve been to Italy”, “He has just been to the bank”


We say “get to” a place– get to London

BUT we say “arrive in” or “arrive at”– arrive in a town, arrive at the hotel.


We don’t say “to home” BUT we say go home/come home/ get home/arrive home/ on the way home

  • INTO

go into/get into = enter (a room/a building/a car…)

get into the car go into the room

  • BY

We use by to say how we do something.

do something by hand

send something by post

pay by credit card, by cheque BUT in cash

OR something can happen

by accident by chance by mistake

We use by to say how we travel

by car by train by plane by boat by ship

by bus by bicycle

by road by sea by rail by air by underground

BUT we say on foot

Did you come here by car or on foot?

We say by car/by train BUT in my car, on the train, in a taxi

We say something is done by somebody.

The door was opened by somebody.


The door was opened with a key.

We say a painting by Rembrandt/ books by Agatha Christie/novel by Tolstoy.

BY also means next o/beside.

Come and sit by me.

The light is by the door.


1. Put to/at/in where necessary.

1. What time does the train get to London?

2. What time does the train arrive in London?

3. What time did you get home last night?

4. What time do you usually arrive to work?

5. When did you get to the cinema?

6. We arrived home felling very tired.

7. Have you ever been to China?

8. We had lunch at the airport while we were waiting for our plane.

9.He has just returned to France.

10.Are you going to that party next week?

2. Put in/to/into where necessary.

1. Three people were taken to the hospital.

2. Shall we take a taxi to the station or shall we walk?

3. I’m tired. As soon as I get home, I’m going to bed.

4. Welcome to the hotel. We hope you enjoy your stay here.

5. He opened the door and I got into the car.

6. A bird flew into the kitchen through the window.

7. Don’t wait outside! Come to the house.

3.Complete the sentences using by+ one of the following words.

Chance credit card chance hand mistake

1. We hadn’t arranged to meet. We met by chnace.

2. I didn’t intend to take your umbrella. I took it by mistake.

3. If you haven’t got any cash, you can pay by credit card.

4. I never suspected anything. It was only by chance that I found what had happened.

5. I didn’t put the pullover in the washing machine. I washed it by hand.

4. Put in by/in/on/ or with

1. He usually goes to work by the bus.

2. I saw Jane. She was on the bus.

3. How did you get here? Did you come by train?

4. How did you get here? Did you come on the train?

5. Sorry, we are late. We missed the bus, so we had to come on foot.

6. I came home in a taxi.

7. “Romeo and Juliet” is a play by Shakespeare.

8. “War and Peace” is a book by Tolstoy.

9. I don’t mind going there in the car, but I don’t want to go in your car.

10. I know that music is by Beethoven, but I don’t know how it is called.

11. The photo is taken by a friend of mine.

12. There was a small table in the bed with a lamp and a clock on it.

Հեռավար-առցանց ուսուցում․անգլերեն(ապրիլի 14-20)

The story of one photo

Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Farewell Letter

  • Write down your thoughts about this letter
  •  Who was Gabriel Garcia Marquez:


Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo [ˈɡaβo] or Gabito [ɡaˈβito] throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century, particularly in the Spanish language, he was awarded the 1972 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics. In 1958 he married Mercedes Barcha; they had two sons, Rodrigo and Gonzalo.

García Márquez started as a journalist and wrote many acclaimed non-fiction works and short stories, but is best known for his novels, such as One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), The Autumn of the Patriarch (1975), and Love in the Time of Cholera (1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style known as magic realism, which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in the fictional village of Macondo (mainly inspired by his birthplace, Aracataca), and most of them explore the theme of solitude.

Upon García Márquez’s death in April 2014, Juan Manuel Santos, the president of Colombia, called him «the greatest Colombian who ever lived.


If God, for a second, forgot what I have become and granted me a little bit more of life, I would use it to the best of my ability.

I wouldn’t, possibly, say everything that is in my mind, but I would be more thoughtful l of all I say.

I would give merit to things not for what they are worth, but for what they mean to express.

I would sleep little, I would dream more, because I know that for every minute that we close our eyes, we waste 60 seconds of light.

I would walk while others stop; I would awake while others sleep.

If God would give me a little bit more of life, I would dress in a simple manner, I would place myself in front of the sun, leaving not only my body, but my soul naked at its mercy.

To all men, I would say how mistaken they are when they think that they stop falling in love when they grow old, without knowing that they grow old when they stop falling in love.

I would give wings to children, but I would leave it to them to learn how to fly by themselves.

To old people I would say that death doesn’t arrive when they grow old, but with forgetfulness.

I have learned so much with you all, I have learned that everybody wants to live on top of the mountain, without knowing that true happiness is obtained in the journey taken & the form used to reach the top of the hill.

I have learned that when a newborn baby holds, with its little hand, his father’s finger, it has trapped him for the rest of his life.

I have learned that a man has the right and obligation to look down at another man, only when that man needs help to get up from the ground.

Say always what you feel, not what you think. If I knew that today is the last time that that I am going to see you asleep, I would hug you with all my strength and I would pray to the Lord to let me be the guardian angel of your soul.

If I knew that these are the last moments to see you, I would say “I love you.”

There is always tomorrow, and life gives us another opportunity to do things right, but in case I am wrong, and today is all that is left to me, I would love to tell you how much I love you & that I will never forget you.

Tomorrow is never guaranteed to anyone, young or old. Today could be the last time to see your loved ones, which is why you mustn’t wait; do it today, in case tomorrow never arrives. I am sure you will be sorry you wasted the opportunity today to give a smile, a hug, a kiss, and that you were too busy to grant them their last wish.

Keep your loved ones near you; tell them in their ears and to their faces how much you need them and love them. Love them and treat them well; take your time to tell them “I am sorry,” “forgive me, “please,” “thank you,” and all those loving words you know.

Nobody will know you for your secret thought. Ask the Lord for wisdom and strength to express them.

Show your friends and loved ones how important they are to you.

Send this letter to those you love. If you don’t do it today…tomorrow will be like yesterday, and if you never do it, it doesn’t matter either, the moment to do it is now.

For you, with much love,

Your Friend,

by Gabriel Garcia Marquez


  • For the time of the day –at 5 o’clock,at midnight, at sunset
  • we use at with expressions – at night, at the weekend, at present, at the moment, at Easter,at Christmas
  • We say that somebody is at home, at work, at school, at university, at college, at sea

go home, walk home, come home BUT be at home, stay at home, do sth at home

  • We say that somebody is at a party, at a concert…at a conference, at the meeting, at a football match
  • We usually say at when we say where an event takes place  at the Moscow cinema, at the Royal festival Hall…
  • We say at the station, at the airport
  • We say at somebody’s house- at Tom’s house, at Tom’s, at the doctor’s, at the hairdresser’s
  • We say arrive in referring to large  places – arrive in Italy, arrive in Paris BUT referring to small places we say arrive at the station, arrive at work, arrive at the hotel


  • We use on for days and dates: on Friday, on April 15, On Christmas day, on my birthday
  • we say that somebody is on the left, on the right, on the floor,on a map, on the menu, on a farm
  • we say that a place is on a river, on the road, on the coast, on the way
  • we say on a bus, on a train, on a plane, on a ship also on a horse, on a bicycle,on a motor-bike
  • BUT in a car, in a taxi
  • we say on the shelf, on the floor, on the balcony, on the wall, on the door, on the ceiling


  • In a room, in a shop, in the car, in the water, in the garden, in the city.…
  • We use in for longer periods– in October, in winter, in 1985, in the Middle Ages, in the 18th century, in the past, in the future
  • We use in to tell a time in the future– in a few minutes, in a week,in a moment, in 2 months
  • We say in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon

  BUT we say on Friday afternoon, on Monday morning…


1.Complete the sentences with in,at,on.

1.My office is on the first floor. It’s on the left as you come out of the lift.

2.I love to look up the stars in the sky at night.

3.Paris is on the river Seine.

4.It’s a very small village .You can’t find in on your map.

5.Have you ever worked in a farm?

6.Our flat is on the second floor.

7.We stopped at a small village on the way to London.

8.Portsmouth is in the south coast of England.

9.Nicola was wearing a silver ring on her little finger.

10.The headmaster of the company is in Milan.

2.Complete the sentences.Use in, at, on + one of the following

the door , 18 May 1991 , Saturday evenings , the station, 6 months ,

my way to work, my guitar , time , the west coast , the river

  1. Look at those people swimming on the river.
  2. One of the strings on my guitar is broken
  3. Have you seen the notice on the door?
  4. San Francisco is on the west coast of the United States.
  5. I usually buy a newspaper on my way to work in the morning.
  6. My train arrives at 11:30. Can you meet me at the station.
  7. We got to the station just on time to catch the train.
  8. They are getting married in 6 months.
  9. Do you usually go out on Saturday evenings.
  10. Pauline got married in 18 May 1991.

3.Put in/on/at

1.Where is she?- in hospital.

2.Where are they? – at the airport.

3.Where is he?- in bed.

4.Where are they? – on a ship.

5.Where are the stars? –in the sky.

6.Where are they? – in the party.

7.Where is John? – at the doctor’s.

8.Where is the restaurant?-on the second floor.

9.Where is she?-at work.

10.Where are they?-on a plane.

11.Where are they?- in a taxi.

12.Where are they?- at a wedding.

Հեռավար-առցանց ուսուցում․Անգլերեն /30.03- 10.04/

Inspiring Speech:The Great Dictator

The Final Speech from The Great Dictator

  • լսել խոսքը(ճառը) յութուբյան տեսանյութից
  • կարդալ, թարգմանել, քննարկել
  • սովորել նոր բառերը
  • ընտրել հատված և ձայնագրել


  • Առանձնացնել այն նախադասությունները, որտեղ կան բառերի և հանգերի կրկնություններ (repetition and rhythm),օրինակ՝ “Machine men with machine minds and machine hearts!”

millions throughout the world — millions of despairing men, women, and little children

machine men with machine minds and machine hearts

You are not machines! You are not cattle! You are men!

let us use that power — let us all unite

  • առանձնացնել այն նախադասությունները,որտեղ Չապլինը իր խոսքով հույս է արթնացնում մարդկանց մեջ։(hope)

We want to live by each other’s happiness — not by each other’s misery.

You, the people have the power — the power to create machines. The power to create happiness! You, the people, have the power to make this life free and beautiful, to make this life a wonderful adventure.

Let us fight for a new world — a decent world that will give men a chance to work — that will give youth a future and old age a security.

  • առանձնացնել այն նախադասությունները, որ հույզեր են առաջացնում:(emotions)

Don’t give yourselves to these unnatural men — machine men with machine minds and machine hearts! You are not machines! You are not cattle! You are men!


gentile-  somebody not  wanting power or money

misery — extreme sadness

Greed- selfishly wanting power or money

Poisonedլ -to give sb or sth a substance that causes death

barricaded- to close something in to a place with an obstruction, so as to restrict

abundance – a large quantity of sth

cynical-only thinking about your own interests

despairing- having no hope

bitterness-  angry and hurt because of a bad experience

dictators– a ruler of a country that has total power & usually got that power through force or violence

liberty– freedom

perish -to die suddenly and possibly violently

brutes – a savage person or animal

despise – to hate very strongly

enslave- to make sb your slave

regiment -to organize in a strict way

drill – to train soldiers by lots of repetition

cattle -cows

cannon fodder – soldiers that are used in war to be sent to their death

intolerance -not accepting other people’s beliefs or behaviour that are different from your own

decent – kind, honest, respectable, nice, good

reason -sth that is right, practical or possible

April Fools’ Day 30.03.-03.04

30 Hilarious Pranks For April Fools’ Day

Post April Fools Day Jokes Everyone!



  • Make your own easy and funny pranks for friends to have a good laugh.(take photos)
  • Tell a good joke in English( make a video)

A family of mice were surprised by a big cat. Father Mouse jumped and and said, “Bow-wow!” The cat ran away. “What was that, Father?” asked Baby Mouse. “Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language.”

A man goes to the doctor and says, “Doctor, wherever I touch, it hurts.”
The doctor asks, “What do you mean?”
The man says, “When I touch my shoulder, it really hurts. If I touch my knee – OUCH! When I touch my forehead, it really, really hurts.”
The doctor says, “I know what’s wrong with you – you’ve broken your finger!”

Two boys were arguing when the teacher entered the room.

The teacher says, “Why are you arguing?”

One boy answers, “We found a ten dollar bill and decided to give it to whoever tells the biggest lie.”

“You should be ashamed of yourselves,” said the teacher, “When I was your age I didn’t even know what a lie was.”

The boys gave the ten dollars to the teacher.

A snail walks into a bar and the barman tells him there’s a strict policy about having snails in the bar and so kicks him out. A year later the same snail re-enters the bar and asks the barman “What did you do that for?”

Headmaster: I’ve had complaints about you, Johnny, from all your teachers. What have you been doing?
Johnny: Nothing, sir.
Headmaster: Exactly.

A teenage girl had been talking on the phone for about half an hour, and then she hung up.

“Wow!,” said her father, “That was short. You usually talk for two hours. What happened?”

“Wrong number,” replied the girl.

PUPIL: “Would you punish me for something I didn’t do?”
TEACHER:” Of course not.”
PUPIL: “Good, because I haven`t done my homework.”

Little Johnny: Teacher, can I go to the bathroom?
Teacher: Little Johnny, MAY I go to the bathroom?
Little Johnny: But I asked first!


Grammar/Exercises (Much,many,little,few,a lot,plenty)


We use much and little with uncountable nouns.

much time         little energy

we use a lot of/lots of /plenty of with uncountable and plural(countable) nouns

a lot of luck             lots of time         plenty of money

a lot of friends       lots of people      plenty of ideas

We use much/many especially in negative and interrogative sentences.

We didn’t spend much money.

Do you know many people?

In positive sentences a lot (of) is more usual.

We spent a lot of money.

He goes out a lot.

Little and few (without ‘a’) are negative ideas.

We must be quick.There is little time.

He isn’t popular.He has few friends.

A little and a few are more positive.

We have got a little time before the train leaves.

Do you speak English? “A little ”

When did you see him? “A few days ago”.


  1. .Put in much or many

    1. Did you buy much food?
    2. There aren’t many hotels in this town.We haven’t got much petrol.
    3. Were there many people on the train?
    4. Did many students fail the examination?
    5. She hasn’t got much money.
    6. I haven’t seen him for many years.

    2.Fill in much/many/a lot of

    1. Sue drinks a lot of tea.
    2. We didn’t spend much money.
    3. We’ll have to hurry.We haven’t got much time.
    4. He always puts much salt on his food.
    5. I use the phone much at work.
    6. Did it cost much to repair the car?
    7. I don’t know many people in this town.


    3.Complete the sentences. Use much or many with one of these words.

    books, countries, luggage, people, time, times

    1. I don’t read very much.I haven’t got many books.
    2. Quick! We must hurry. We haven’t got much time.
    3. Do you travel a lot? Have you been to many countries
    4. She hasn’t lived here very long, so she doesn’t know many people.
    5. Have you got much time? No, only this bag.
    6. I know Paris very well. I’ve been there many times.

    4.Put in little/a little/few/a few

    1. Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?
    2. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so few tourists come here.
    3. I don’t think he would be a good teacher.He has got little patience.
    4. Would you like milk in your coffee? Yes, please a little.
    5. Have you ever been to Paris? Yes I have been there a few times.
    6. There was few traffic so the journey didn’t take very long.

    5.Put in a little and a few + one of these words.

    air, chairs, days, friends, letters, milk, times

    1. Last night I wrote a few letters to my family and friends.
    2. Can I have a little milk in my coffee,please?
    3. Are you going out alone? No, I am going with a few friends.
    4. Have you ever been to Rome? Yes, a few times.
    5. There wasn’t much furniture in the room – just a table and a few chairs.
    6. I’m going out for a walk. I need a little fresh air.

    Easter:The Parable of the Sower

    Reading and discussion

    The Parable of the SowerSlide03_Parable_Sower_Matthew-13-1-23_Illustrated-Bible-Scriptures_featured

     That same day Jesus went out of the house and sat by the lake.  Such large crowds gathered around him that he got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people stood on the shore. Then he told them many things in parables, saying: “A farmer went out to sow his seed.  As he was scattering the seed, some fell along the path, and the birds came and ate it up.  Some fell on rocky places, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly, because the soil was shallow.  But when the sun came up, the plants were scorched, and they withered because they had no root.  Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the plants. Still other seed fell on good soil, where it produced a crop—a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown.  Whoever has ears, let them hear.”

     The disciples came to him and asked, “Why do you speak to the people in parables?”

     He replied, “Because the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of heaven has been given to you, but not to them.  Whoever has will be given more, and they will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what they have will be taken from them.  This is why I speak to them in parables:

    “Though seeing, they do not see;
        though hearing, they do not hear or understand.

     In them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah:

    “‘You will be ever hearing but never understanding;
        you will be ever seeing but never perceiving.
     For this people’s heart has become calloused;
        they hardly hear with their ears,
        and they have closed their eyes.
    Otherwise they might see with their eyes,
        hear with their ears,
        understand with their hearts
    and turn, and I would heal them.’

    But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear.  For truly I tell you, many prophets and righteous people longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.

     “Listen then to what the parable of the sower means:  When anyone hears the message about the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what was sown in their heart. This is the seed sown along the path.  The seed falling on rocky ground refers to someone who hears the word and at once receives it with joy.  But since they have no root, they last only a short time. When trouble or persecution comes because of the word, they quickly fall away.  The seed falling among the thorns refers to someone who hears the word, but the worries of this life and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, making it unfruitful.  But the seed falling on good soil refers to someone who hears the word and understands it. This is the one who produces a crop, yielding a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown.”

    Questions for discussion

1.What is a parable?

Parable is a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth , religious principle, or moral lesson.

2. What did the good soil symbolize in this parable?

Good soil represents people who hear the message and live it in their lives.

3.How many different types of soil were there in the parable and what were they?

There were 4 types of soil: path, rocky places, thorns and good soil.

Select the right answer.

1. What happened to the seed that fell on the path?

a) It started to grow but could not take root.

b) Birds ate it.

c) It got choked out.

2. What happened to the seed that fell on rocky soil?

a) It started to grow but could not take root.

b) Birds ate it.

c) It got choked out.

3. What characterizes people who are like the seed that fell among thorns?

a) As soon as they hear what God says, Satan swoops down and takes it away.

b) They hear what God says but the worries of life, the deceitfulness of wealth and the desire for other things make them unfruitful.

4. Why did some seed produce a crop?

a) It was a special kind of seed.

b) It fell on good soil.

5. What characterizes people who are like the seed sown on good soil?

a) They hear God’s word and obey it.

b) When troubles come they quickly fall away.


1. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary

biscuit, coat, key, music, letter, sugar, moment, question, blood, electricity

1. Listen! Can you hear music?

2. I couldn’t get into the house because I didn’t have a key

3. It’s very warm today .Why are you wearing a coat?

4. Do you take sugar in your coffee?

5. Are you hungry? Would you like a biscuitwith your coffee?

6. I didn’t phone them. I wrote a letter instead.

7. Excuse me, but can I ask you a question?

8. I’m not ready yet. Can you wait a moment, please?

9.Our lives would be very difficult without electricity.

10.The heart pumps blood through the body.

2. Who were the people?

1.Beethoven? He was a composer.

2.Shakespeare? He was an English poet, playwright, and actor.

3.Albert Einstein? Albert Einstein was a German mathematician and physicist.

4.Washington? Lincoln? John Kennedy? They were American political leaders.

5.Marilyn Monroe? She was an actor and singer.

6.Elvis Presley? John Lennon? They were singers.

7.Van Gogh? Renoir? Gauguin? They were painters.

3. Put a/an or some where necessary.If no word is necessary, leave the space empty (-).

1) I have seen some good films recently.
2) What’s wrong with you? Have you got aheadache.
3) I know a lot of people. Most of them are students.
4) When I was a child, I used to be very shy.
5) Would you like to be an actor?
6) Do you collect _ stamps?
7) What a beautiful garden.
8) It’s a pity we haven’t got a camera. I’d like to take a photo of that house.
9) Those are _ nice shoes.Where did you get them?
10) I’m going shopping. I want to buy _ new shoes.
11) You need visa to visit some countries, but not all of them.
12) Jane is a teacher. Her parents were _ teachers too.

Դերանունների կրկնության վարժություններ

Exercises for the revision of the pronouns.

Put in a reflexnive or a personal pronoun.

  1. Whenever she comes to visit us she always brings her son with her.
  2. I give him a key to my house so that he could let himself in.
  3. It was a great party. We enjoyed ourselves.
  4. Let them take some money with them.
  5. Don’t worry about them. They can take care of themselves.
  6. Can I take another biscuit? Of course . Help yourself.
  7. We’ve got a problem. I hope you can help us.

Choose the right pronoun.

  1. Alice is so choosy. Nothing ever pleases her.
  2. I don’t know anything about economics.
  3. It’s hot in here. Does anybody mind if I open the window?
  4. If something happens to her, I’ll blame you.
  5. When we got there it was already too late to do something.
  6. You have hurt your arm. “Don’t worry, It’s nothing.
  7. Nobody believed him.

Women who changed the world 



This is CR Muse, a series dedicated to the remembrance of important artists and idea-makers from our past who have shaped culture as we know it today. From traditional creators to those of conceptual thought, we celebrate these women known not only for their work but their confident, eccentric style as well.

Coco Chanel is one of the most well-known fashion designers of all time. Though she is sometimes simplified to something of a mascot—an authority on chic with bobbed hair, dripping in pearls—Chanel was a far more fascinating (and polarizing) figure than we give her credit for. “What’s wonderful about her is she’s not a straightforward, easy woman to understand,” Shirley MacLaine, who played the designer in the 2008 film Coco Chanelonce said. At once a brilliant designer, a shrewd businesswoman, and a social climber, her history is complex.


Chanel’s childhood could not have been further from the luxury that is associated with her name. Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel was born into poverty in 1883. Her mother passed away when she was only 12 years old, after which her father left her at an orphanage. It was at said orphanage where she learned to sew. As one of her early odd jobs, she sang in cafes, earning the nickname “Coco.” Where the name came from specifically is unclear—some say it was from a song name, others say it was short for «coquette.»


It’s easy to see where the «coquette» rumor came from. Chanel was an enticing young woman. She was strong willed and independent at a time when women were still burdened by social constraints. She easily earned the affections of wealthy men like Arthur «Boy» Capel, who became her financial backer in 1913, when she opened her a hat shop. Finding success among wealthy women, she expanded into clothing.


Interestingly, what set her apart was her rejection of everything that was previously considered luxurious. Her clothes were easy to wear and did not require corsets. She used jersey as her primary fabric at a time when it was reserved for men’s undergarments. Additionally, she was one of the first designers to embrace minimalism. By the 1920s, she hit her stride. Her perfume, Chanel No. 5, which she launched in 1921, was an immediate hit. She also captured the new, more independent spirit of women with her clothes. She introduced the little black dress, which has become a staple garment in most women’s wardrobes, and in 1954, she launched a version of the Chanel suit the house is best known for today: a boxy, collarless blazer with a fitted skirt.

The simplicity of her designs became her calling card, and her less-is-more approach has lead to several maxims still used as fashion advice today: «Simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance,» «A woman can be overdressed but never over elegant,» and taking off the last piece of jewelry you put on before leaving the house all endure as tips for achieving an ease in style.


Despite her minimalist clothing, Chanel’s apartment at 31 rue Cambon was a decadent space. Located above her boutique in Paris, it was filled with leather-bound books, chandeliers, and extravagant knick-knacks, like engraved cigarette boxes and gold Venetian lions. But perhaps the most famous part of the apartment, which has remained unchanged since her death in 1971, is a mirrored staircase that leads down to where she presented her collections. Chanel would sit at the top, watching the reactions to her clothes.


Of course, her enduring couture house and thriving business is part of Chanel’s lasting legacy. An oft-repeated bit of trivia is that her perfume, Chanel No. 5, is sold every 30 seconds. But Chanel herself has also lived on as a caricature. Despite the fine details of her life, what seems to resonate with people most is her rags-to-riches story. She rose not only beyond her financial station, but also above the limitations her era put on women. “As a phenomenon, Chanel shoulders a lot of different narratives,” said Harold Koda, former curator of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Her life has a kind of mythic quality.”


Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain’s national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group (together with Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives and Tate Online). It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art.Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of modern and contemporary art in the world. As with the UK’s other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is a highly visited museum, pulling in approximately 5.8 million visitors in 2018.


Make the sentences interrogative and negative

1. Do you Know the answer?

2.Does he trie hard?

3.Does he love her?

4.Do the children like sweets?

5.Does she carrie her sleeping bag?

6.Does he trust you?

7.Does she play chess very well?

8.Do they work at night?

9.Do their dog bark at night?

10. Does she dog bark at night?

11.Did she sell her car?

12.Do the boys ran home?

13.Did he forgive her?

15.Did she find her watch

14.Did he lose his wallet?

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